"Symbols are keyholes to doors in the
walls of space, and through them man peers into Eternity...Symbolism,
then, is the divine language, and its figures are a celestial
alphabet..." - Manly P. Hall .
"...symbolical rites are the external expressions of man's inward
desire to unite with Divinity." - Roberta H. Lamerson, F.R.C. .
"Whilst we cannot be exactly sure what the labyrinths were used for,
they were clearly a symbol of the Christian way, representing
the path of the soul through life." - About Labyrinths and Mazes .
I was struck by the simplicity of the above statement: that labyrinths
are "clearly a symbol of the Christian way." An interesting position,
especially given the fact that the authors of this particular quote
admit, "we cannot be exactly sure what the labyrinths were used for..."
We live in a day and age where many "new things" are sweeping through
the Christian church. Some of these alternative directions are simply a
reflection of changes in style and format. However, in our exploration
towards alternative forms of spiritual expression - particularly as we
try to build relevancy in a post-modern culture - it is imperative that
doctrinal discernment and discretionary principles come into play. This
is especially true as society rapidly embraces a plethora of alternative
spiritual practices, beliefs, and paths. Sadly, we as Christians often
flounder in doing our homework, and in that vein we may inadvertently
open our congregations to highly questionable choices and spiritual
Paradoxically, while the evangelical Christian community talks about "spiritual
warfare" and "putting
on the full amour of God," many of these same churches can be
found embracing that which they claim to counter. In seeking relevancy,
we have become dangerously "experiential" in nature, and old forms of
mysticism are becoming center-pieces in "experiences of faith."
The labyrinth prayer-walk, which follows a
single winding path to a central location, is a case in point. Primarily
jump-started by a UK-based Christian movement in alternative spiritual
expressions and by an influential San Francisco cathedral, denominations
around the world are embracing labyrinths as a viable part of the
"spiritual journey." But are labyrinths part of the Christian encounter,
as suggested by the third introductory quote above?
My first experience with a labyrinth happened years before the idea
become faddish in Christian circles. I was doing research work on occult
philosophy at the Theosophical headquarters in Wheaton, IL, and after
spending a better part of the day reviewing esoteric literature
(Theosophy is a blend of mystical traditions, ancient mystery religions,
and eastern philosophies), I went for a walk across the grounds to clear
my head. There, towards the back of the property, was a labyrinth that
had been set up as a place for spiritual release and expression.
As a Christian researcher and author on globalization, including the
religious trends accompanying our changing international situation, I
wasn't surprised by the fact that a labyrinth was set up at this
intensely "occult" location. It made perfect sense.
Understand, Christians looking for ways to bring in new relevancy within
church worship did not "rediscover" the labyrinth as a spiritual tool.
As we shall see, it's been part of the esoteric world for a very long
time. Which is why, today, labyrinth walks and "prayer journeys" are
being promoted by Rosicrucian groups , at New Age festivals and
celebrations , and throughout the neo-pagan world. Not surprisingly,
one of America's largest witch, shaman, and neo-pagan assemblies, the
2005 Pagan Spirit Gathering at Wisteria, OH, held a night-time Summer
Solstice Labyrinth ritual, which was described as a "transformative,
walking meditation through an all night labyrinth formed by 1000 lighted
Embarking on the
Counter to the statement "we cannot be exactly sure what the labyrinths
were used for" is a wealth of literature, some easy to obtain, others
that should be kept hidden on dusty shelves. This material paints a
fascinating picture on the uses and purposes of the labyrinth as a
conduit for the mystical. But before we venture down this path, it's
important that we journey into the recesses of ancient mythological
The primary historical focal point for the lore of the labyrinth goes
back to Cretan and Greek tales of Queen PasiphaŽ, her perverse sexual
desire for a specific sacrificial bull, an abominable act of bestiality,
and the birth of a strange hybrid offspring - the dreaded Minotaur,
which lived in a labyrinth built to cage him .
Each year, King Minos, the husband of PasiphaŽ, demanded that seven boys
and seven girls be given as a sacrificial tribute to be devoured by the
Minotaur. One year, a hero named Theseus accompanied the children.
Taking a ball of twine, he unravelled the string as he went through the
labyrinth, giving him a trail leading back out. Once inside the
labyrinth, Theseus followed the maze to it's center, where he battled
with the Minotaur and eventually beat the creature to death.
The labyrinth containing this Minotaur was not the typical single-path
labyrinth of today, but rather a complex maze containing halls and
chambers. However, esoteric philosophers have long understood that the
Minotaur maze directly corresponds to the ancient (and now modern)
spiritually-connected labyrinth walk; the long soul journey with its
many twists and turns, the ultimate arrival at the central convergence
point, the struggle with the inner monster - and the final victory over
the forces of darkness and ignorance (which can only happen when one is
illumined at the center), and the repeated journey back to wholeness and
the light of day. This esoteric significance of the Cretan story has
never been lost on the initiates of the Mystery Schools.
Don't forget, this Grecian/Cretan story was immersed in the pagan
religious context of the day, that's the metaphysical origin of the
labyrinth as we can trace it. Hence the story of PasiphaŽ, with its
labyrinth journey and inner battle, is of interest first and foremost to
the world of occult lore: for the simple reason that this is the
In following the path of knowledge concerning the spiritual uses of the
labyrinth, one doesn't have to go to the Pagan Spirit Gathering or delve
deeply into occult literature (however, we will examine esoteric
writings in order to build upon this article). Plenty of information
abounds in various reference works. Take, for instance, The Penguin
Dictionary of Symbols.
In discussing the labyrinth as a religious tool, The Penguin
Dictionary associates the maze (read labyrinth) with the Buddhist
Mandala - an aid in the spiritual initiatory journey. Consider the
various other metaphysical interpretations of the labyrinth [note:
square bracketed comments indicate an explanation provided by this
"In the Kabbalistic tradition [Author's
note: the Kabbala is a series of texts which make up the school of
Jewish mysticism] taken up by the alchemists, mazes filled a magical
function which was one of the secrets attributed to Solomon. This is
why the mazes in cathedrals, 'those series of concentric circles
broken at given points on the circumference to provide a strange and
tangled pathway', came to be called 'Solomon's Maze'. Alchemists saw
them as images 'of the whole task involved in the Work, with its major
difficulties; an image of the path they needed to follow to reach the
centre, arena for the two warring natures...' This explanation would
run parallel with that provided by one of the teachings of ascetic
mysticism - focusing upon oneself, along the thousands of paths of
feeling, emotion and ideas; overcoming all that stands in the way of
unalloyed intuition, and then returning to the light without becoming
lost in the byways. To enter and to emerge from the maze might be the
symbol of death and resurrection.
"The maze also takes one to the centre
of one's self, 'to some hidden, inner shrine, occupied by the most
mysterious portion' of the human personality. This conjures up the
mens, the temple of the Holy Spirit in the soul at a state of grace;
or again, the depths of the unconscious. Both can only be reached by
consciousness after making many detours or by intense concentration,
when that ultimate intuition is attained and everything becomes plain
through some kind of enlightenment. Here in this crypt the lost
oneness of being, scattered in a multiplicity of desires, is
"To reach the centre of the maze, like a
stage in the process of initiation, is to be made a member of the
invisible lodge [Author's note: the high-calling of the Mystery
Religions] which the maze- makers always shroud in mystery or, better
still, have always been left to be filled by the finder's own
Jack Tresidder's Dictionary of Symbols
"...many labyrinths are unicursal,
having no traps but leading sinuously along a single path. These were
often used in early temples as initiation routes or more widely for
religious dances that imitated the weaving paths of the sun or
planets. They reappeared in patterns on the floors of medieval
Christian churches as 'roads to Jerusalem' - paths symbolizing
Other reference works on symbols - and a
labyrinth is both a spiritual tool and a religious symbol - give similar
definitions [as an example, see The Herder Dictionary of Symbols].
While the meanings are varied, they do pulse with a similar theme, even
when associated with the early Roman Catholic cathedrals. And this theme
is repeated and more deeply probed by esoteric philosophers and New
Agers; it's the path of mysticism, esotericism, and occultism.
If the labyrinth is a path leading to one specific point, what does the
wayfarer expect to find when he or she arrives?
On the mystical journey to spiritual fulfillment, the middle-eye of the
labyrinth becomes a place of divine illumination. Even Kimberly Lowelle,
the President of The Labyrinth Society - a network of labyrinth scholars
and enthusiasts - recognizes this basic function.
"The labyrinth is an archetype of
transformation. Its transcendant nature knows no boundaries, crossing
time and cultures with ease. The labyrinth serves as a bridge from the
mundane to the divine..." 
The promotional website for the Breemie
Labyrinth in the UK gives an almost identical explanation, "The
labyrinth is an archetypal spiritual tool, found across many times and
cultures. While a maze is a left-brain, rational puzzle, the labyrinth
involves the right side of the brain, and helps us access our intuition,
providing a portal to the Divine" .
Kathy Doore, an author on sacred spaces, freely describes the spiritual
implications of the labyrinth,
"Labyrinths are temples that enhance and
balance and bring a sense of the sacred - a place where we can confirm
our unity with the cosmos, awaken our vital force and elevate our
consciousness. These structures are space/time temples where we can
behold realities that oddly enough transcend space and time. The
orientation, form and geometry of a labyrinth has symbolic as well as
spacial [sic] importance. It is a mirror for the divine...
"...Moving through a Labyrinth changes ordinary ways of perception
connecting the inner and the outer, the right brain and the left
brain, the involutional and the evolutional through a series of paths
that represent the realms of the Gods and Goddesses. These realms are
associated with planetary movement as a process that induces Union
with the One." 
Divine illumination is the end-goal of
esoteric philosophy; it's the central arena of occultism.
Manly P. Hall, one of the 20th century's greatest esoteric philosophers
and an eminent Masonic historian, tells us that the labyrinth was
symbolic of man's search for truth . Other occult scholars tell us
that the labyrinth symbolized to the people "the difficulty of finding
the Path to God" . All of this points to the same thing - the
mystical realization of our own divinity.
As Hall states in one of his earlier books, "Man is a god in the making,
and as in the mystic myths of Egypt, on the potter's wheel he is being
molded. When his light shines out to lift and preserve all things, he
receives the triple crown of godhood..." . Rosicrucian authority
Christian Bernard explains this mystical goal as the building and
unfolding of the inner Temple,
"The Temple of the Universe, the Temple
of the Earth and the Temple of Life are only one in the Temple of Man.
This is why the time has come to work towards rebuilding it, for the
Messianic Light must emanate from the Heavenly Jerusalem which
vibrates within us." 
Laying it out very plainly, Annie Besant -
an early Theosophical leader - simply said, "Man is not to be compelled;
he is to be free. He is not a slave, but a God in the making"
Part and parcel of labyrinth symbology is initiation, the mystical
process of inner transformation. Robert Macoy's Dictionary of
Freemasonry, like so much of the esoteric literature, connects the
meaning of the labyrinth with this concept. Defining the labyrinth,
Macoy wrote, "In the ancient mysteries the passages through which the
initiate made his mystical pilgrimage" .
As stated above, initiation is the process of inner
transformation. To that end, esoteric societies and occult orders employ
initiation as a vital component to spiritual advancement. Indeed,
initiation is the pathway, the journey, to mystical completeness. This
is the occult metaphor of the labyrinth, a metaphor that is played out
in a host of mystical similes. Consider the following archetypes. Keep
in mind, each example is replete with historical and religious
connections to the Mystery Religions, of which the labyrinth is but a
Freemasonry: when the Masonic candidate undergoes his initiation,
he is led on an invisible path from station to station throughout the
Lodge room. Each point and part of this journey is given an exoteric
explanation - that is, the real meanings are cloaked in allegory and
symbolism. After completing the journey around the Lodge, he is led to
the center of the room where he kneels before an altar. The Worshipful
Master asks what the candidate most desires, and the initiate responds
with "Light" . Know this, the light requested is not incandescent
light or some other physical light energy, but spiritual illumination
Order of the Golden Dawn: Initiations rites such as the Ceremony
of the Grade of Philosophus have the candidate embark on a spiritual
journey, following an invisible yet tangible path throughout the Lodge
room. This journey, like that of Freemasonry, is intended to elevate the
candidate's level of transformative enlightenment .
Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis: In AMORC's Temple
ritual, Second Portal, the student partakes in an allegorical journey
searching for light and knowledge. While engaged in the ritual, the
student follows a path to each point on the compass, and returns to a
central triangle. Again, like the two other illustrations above, this
act is part of the mystical journey towards "light" and cosmic unity
Order of the Eastern Star: As a co-Masonic body, the OES engages
in a series of ritualistic initiations. Unlike Freemasonry, the OES
ritual work is performed on a giant floor-rug pentagram. This pentagram,
with an altar placed in its center, is called a Labyrinth. Each of the
various initiation rites - journeys on the path to greater understanding
- takes place in and around this Labyrinth . Beulah Malone, Past
Grand Matron and Secretary of the OES explains,
"The winding in and out of the labyrinth
symbolizes the human soul stumbling and struggling through life;
learning by mistakes and experiences that the way leading to the
supreme life and to God is not easy but is a way of testing one's
power and strength.
"By following the examples symbolized in
the lives of the heroines of our Order [Author's note: this is part of
the OES Labyrinth journey], we may come into a full light of His Star
and into wisdom and understanding. The great magnet of our Star as it
shines forth in the world is missioned to bring Unity, the Truth of
Fatherhood of God, and Brotherhood of Man." 
And herein lies the deeper spiritual
meaning of the labyrinth-walk that has become so fashionable today. It's
the symbolic journey of illumination, completely spiritual in nature,
and dependent on our works - the "journey," or the "testing [of] one's
power and strength."
The path to the center of the labyrinth is as the invisible but tangible
path leading to the esoteric altar - it's an initiation into the
The Path of
Completion: Returning from the Center
Hundreds of Christians have taken part in labyrinth prayer walks, and
many churches across North America and Europe are embracing this tool as
a means to expand their spiritual experience. The Rev. Jill Geoffrion, a
"certified labyrinth facilitator" and author of such books as
Christian Prayer and Labyrinths and Praying the Labyrinth,
"We are currently in a period of
historic labyrinth revival. Churches, retreat centers and Christian
camps are placing these prayer tools inside and outside. Christians
all over the world are installing labyrinths in their yards and
gardens. Many are using the labyrinths as a ministry tool, bringing
portable versions to prisons, national denominational conferences and
church group meetings. It is conservatively estimated that there are
over 5,000 labyrinths in the United States alone. God is blessing the
use of the labyrinth; many are being drawn closer to Jesus,
experiencing healing and gaining spiritual clarity as they pray on its
I must admit her pronouncement sounds
appealing. But this particular statement by Geoffrion doesn't paint the
On her labyrinth prayer website, Geoffrion offers suggested prayers for
different labyrinth events. In dedicating a new labyrinth, she suggests
that those in attendance form a circle on the pattern and extend "the
energy that is in our hearts and minds through their hands towards the
labyrinth." Following this exercise is a meditative time where each
person physically lays hands on the labyrinth and calls forth "the image
of a loved one walking this labyrinth and receiving what is needed."
After more "imaging," she recommends this responsive prayer,
"Community: We dedicate this
labyrinth to spiritual awakening and reawakening.
One: With hearts extending in many directions, Let us pray...Sacred
Sustainer, Way to wholeness, Creator of possibilities, Supporter of
change, Forgiving Releaser, Freedom, Honesty, Wisdom, Hope, Joy...we
thank You for the beautiful spiritual tool on which we are
Geoffrion suggests other reflective
meditations for the labyrinth, including short prayers from the "Christian
Tradition," "Egyptian Tradition," "Hindu Tradition," and "Sufi
For Christians holding to the exclusive message of Jesus Christ in John
14:6, "I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the
Father except through me," a serious rift is now encountered. It's the
dilemma that exists between what Geoffrion's first quote described
verses the religious pluralism that the labyrinth appears to propagate.
And because of the nature and metaphysical history of the labyrinth,
this spiritual pluralism is inescapable. However, this ever-widening
religious inclusiveness - which is the expression of the esoteric
idea of the Fatherhood of God - shouldn't come as a surprise. After all,
in the labyrinth experience every path is relevant, every road is
right, every religion is valid.
Granted, Geoffrion is but one spokesperson representing the Christian
labyrinth prayer encounter. Grace Cathedral, however, carries a little
more clout. In fact, Grace, San Francisco's prominent Episcopal Church,
has been North America's "pathfinder" congregation in the labyrinth
movement, hosting prayer walks on their two labyrinths for years.
Moreover, Grace's outdoor labyrinth is open 24 hours, and the church now
has an involved global networking organization dedicated to advancing
the labyrinth experience. Hence, Grace has been viewed by many Christian
labyrinth advocates as the driving influence for this new spiritual
expression in North America.
There's no doubt that one reason for Grace Cathedral's success is their
connection to Chartres Cathedral in France. As an ancient medieval
church, Chartres hosts an original pattern that is today's recognized
prototype for the Christian prayer walk. Grace meticulously copied
Chartres, has marketed it very well, and is now a major spokes-church
for the Chartres experience. Consider Grace's website titled "Walking
the Labyrinth: Reflections from Chartres,"
"A profound meditation tool, a metaphor
for the spiritual path, a feminist Christian icon, a symbol of Mary or
even all Christianity, even perhaps an almost cult-like centerpiece of
a movement - the labyrinth is, most everyone can agree, a powerful
Grace is open about the deeper meanings of
the labyrinth. On the front piece to their labyrinth website, Grace
"The Labyrinth is an archetype, a
divine imprint, found in all religious traditions in various forms
around the world. By walking a replica of the Chartres labyrinth, laid
in the floor of Chartres Cathedral in France around 1220, we are
rediscovering a long-forgotten mystical tradition that is insisting to
be reborn." 
And Grace also points out that the
labyrinth is a shared esoteric tradition,
"In Native American culture it is called
Medicine Wheel and Man in the Maze.
The Celts described it as the Never Ending Circle. It is also called
the Kabala in mystical Judaism. One feature they all share is that
they have one path which winds in a circuitous way to the center."
The labyrinth exercise, Grace further
explains, should be viewed in three parts,
Purgation (Releasing) ~ A releasing, a letting go of the details of
your life. This is the act of shedding thoughts and distractions. A
time to open the heart and quiet the mind.
Illumination (Receiving) ~ When you reach the center, stay there as
long as you like. It is a place of meditation and prayer. Receive what
is there for you to receive.
Union (Returning) ~ As you leave, following the same path out of the
center as you came in, you enter the third stage, which is joining
God, your Higher Power, or the healing forces at work in the world.
Each time you walk the labyrinth you become more empowered to find and
do the work you feel your soul reaching for." 
As an institution, Grace is no ordinary
church. Not only has it been extremely influential in propagating the
labyrinth prayer walk, it has been a hotbed for global interfaith work.
In the 1990's William Swing was Bishop of Grace. During the 1995 United
Nations 50th Anniversary, Swing proclaimed that Grace would work towards
the building of a global interfaith network. After an intense amount of
travel and lobbying, Swing succeeded in forming the United Religions
Initiative - one of the world's leading UN affiliated inter-religious
partnerships. Today, the URI is an active player in advancing global
Why does this matter? Remember all the connections between various
esoteric philosophies with the labyrinth concept? A parallel runs
between both themes; Unity. As a spiritual interface, and as
Grace Cathedral reminded us, the mystical labyrinth belongs to "all
Remember the Eastern Star's labyrinth? Unity, the Fatherhood of God,
and the Brotherhood of Man was the proclaimed magnetism of
their Star. Likewise, this triplicate ideology is Freemasonry's
boast, a major claim that the Masonic candidate is to understand via the
paths of initiation.
Manly P. Hall, speaking of the Masonic interfaith ideal of the
Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man, penned these word,
"The true Mason is not creed-bound. He
realizes with the divine illumination of his lodge that as a Mason his
religion must be universal: Christ, Buddha or Mohammed, the name means
little, for he recognizes only the light and not the bearer. He
worships at every shrine, bows before every altar, whether in temple,
mosque or cathedral, realizing with his truer understanding the
oneness of all spiritual truth." 
This is the starting point of the occult
concept of "the divine." It tells us that every path on the journey is
unique, yet each is true. In order for the mystic to move onward and
upward, to return from the center of the labyrinth, he must accept his
inner divinity. As Hall says, "...the way of salvation has been hidden
within us" .
Reiki Master Kate McManus, in her article "Walking the Fire Labyrinth,"
tells of her friend's spiritual journey.
"This year a friend mentioned an event
that was to be held further out west a week after our winter magic
festival. She described it as a fire labyrinth ritual in which a stone
labyrinth would be lit at night to be walked with conscious intent and
so mark the end of the year and begin a new one, a shedding of the old
and birthing of the divine child." 
Years ago Paul Clasper drew this religious
inclusiveness into a completed package,
"The new mingling of faiths will cause a
fresh interpenetration of ideas and customs. Out of the encounter some
paring of outmoded encrustations will perhaps take place. The new
intercourse will fructify in more inclusive, universal faiths, perhaps
even a new world faith as a basis for the coming world civilization."
What Have We Learned?
In an earlier quote by the Rev. Jill Geoffrion, she proclaimed that "God
is blessing the use of the labyrinth; many are being drawn closer to
Jesus, experiencing healing and gaining spiritual clarity as they pray
on its path."
On the surface this sounds great. But is God really blessing this "new
thing"? Moreover, can God bless something that has its origins in
esoteric doctrine and ancient pagan mythologies? Adding to its
historical pagan significance is the fact that the labyrinth has never
lost its occult meaning. As mentioned earlier in the article, labyrinths
are still being used, and will continue to be used, as an instrument of
If God is going to bless labyrinth prayer journeys, how is He going to
deal with Deuteronomy 12:1-14, 18:9-13 and Exodus 34:10-17? In each of
these Scripture passages God explicitly tells His people to refrain from
anything used in pagan practices. Moreover, the entire book of Jeremiah
is a warning against involvement in alternative religious practices.
Furthermore, if God is going to bless labyrinth prayer journeys, how is
He going to excuse the interfaith aspect that is common throughout the
movement? John 14:6 clearly states that the only path to the Father is
through Jesus Christ, and by no other way.
Yes, the majority of Christians would affirm that their prayer walk is
completely focused on Jesus Christ. That may be true, but it doesn't
excuse the fact that the labyrinth is, by its theological nature, an
inter-religious and deeply mystical device. If God is going to bless the
labyrinth experience, how is He going to deal with 2 Corinthians
"Do not be yoked together with
unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common?
Or what fellowship can light have with darkness? What harmony is there
between Christ and Belial? What does a believer have in common with an
unbeliever? What agreement is there between the temple of God and
1. Manly P. Hall, Lectures on Ancient Philosophy (Philosophical Research
Society, 1984), p.357. Hall was one of the 20th century's greatest and
most celebrated esoteric philosophers, founder of the Philosophical
Research Society, eminent Freemason, and a respected lecturer on occult
doctrines and the Mystery Religions.
2. Roberta H. Lamerson, F.R.C. "Initiation," Rosicrucian Digest,
November, 1984, p.21.
3. Kevin and Ana Draper, Steve Collins, and Jonny Baker, "About
Labyrinths and Mazes," Prayer Path Online Labyrinth, http://web.ukonline.co.uk/paradigm/discoverframe.html.
Website promoting labyrinths as an alternative Christian experience.
4. The Toronto lodge of the AMORC Rosicrucian order is now hosting a
labyrinth journey the first Sunday of every other month (September,
November, 2005; January, March, 2006). Location: Rosicrucian Regional
Cultural Centre, 835 Broadview Ave, Toronto, ON.
5. See the Pagan Spirit Gathering 2005 labyrinth ritual at http://www.circlesanctuary.org/psg/rituals.
Another example is the Breemie Labyrinth Mid-Summer Festival at http://www.sacredway.co.uk/Breemie%20main/mhaydenlabs.htm.
6. See the first link in footnote 5.
7. Joseph Campbell, Occidental Mythology: The Masks of God (Arkana,
1964/1991), p.20. See also The Dictionary of World Myth (Facts on File,
1995), p.135. Other ancient labyrinth myths and stories exist that are
rooted in Egyptian and various other Mesopotamian locations.
8. Jean Chevalier and Alain Gheerbrant, The Penguin Dictionary of
Symbols (Penguin Books, 1969/1996), pp.643-644.
9. Jack Tresidder, Dictionary of Symbols (Chronicle Books, 1997),
10. The Labyrinth Society, http://www.labyrinthsociety.org.
11. See footnote 5.
12. Kathy Doore, Myth and History of Labyrinths..., http://www.labyrinthina.com/path.htm.
13. Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages (Philosophic
Research Society, 1989.
14. C.W. Leadbeater, Ancient Mystic Rites (Quest Books, 1986), p.51.
15. Manly P. Hall, The Lost Keys of Freemasonry (Macoy, 1923/1951),
16. Christian Bernard, So Mote It Be! (AMORC, 1995), pp.87-88.
17. Annie Besant, Esoteric Christianity (Quest Books, 1901/1966), p.220.
18. Robert Macoy, A Dictionary of Freemasonry (Gramercy), p.215.
19. Historians and occult philosophers who assert this link between the
Mystery Religions and today's esoteric societies include Manly P. Hall,
Foster Bailey, Albert Pike, C.W. Leadbeater, Israel Regardie, Papus, A.E.
Waite, Eliphas Levi, J.D. Buck, Albert Mackey, H.P. Blavatsky, Henry C.
Clausen, George H. Steinmetz, Joseph Fort Newton, and many others.
20. See Look to the East: A Ritual of the First Three Degrees of
Masonry. See also Duncan's Masonic Ritual and Monitor and Albert Pike's
Morals and Dogma.
21. See Pike's Morals and Dogma, p.252 and Foster Bailey, The Spirit of
22. See Israel Regardie's The Golden Dawn and What You Should Know About
the Golden Dawn.
23. Rosicrucian Initiation, Temple Section, Second Portal, AMORC.
24. See Beulah H. Malone, Let There Be Light; See also Robert Macoy,
Adoptive Rite Ritual; Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star, published
by the authority of the General Grand Chapter Order of the Eastern Star.
25. Beulah H. Malone, Let There Be Light, p.97.
26. The Rev. Jill Kimberly Hartwell Geoffrion, Christian Uses of
27. Geoffrion, Dedication of Deep Haven Labyrinth, http://jillkhg.com/labreded.html.
28. Geoffrion, Prayers from Varying Tradition to use at a Labyrinth,
http://jillkhg.com/prayers4labusedifreltrad.html. I give Geoffrion
sarcasm credit; she includes a short prayer from the American Secular
Tradition - "whatever!"
29. Grace Cathedral, Walking the Labyrinth, http://www.gracecathedral.org/enrichment/forum/for_19981122.shtml.
30. Grace Cathedral labyrinth homepage, http://www.gracecathedral.org/labyrinth.
33. Manly P. Hall, The Lost Keys of Freemasonry (Macoy Publishing,
34. Manly P. Hall, The Mystical Christ (Philosophical Research Society,
35. Kate McManus, "Walking the Fire Labyrinth," About, http://healing.about.com/od/labyrinthspiritual/a/firelabyrinth.htm.
36. Paul Clasper, Eastern Paths and the Christian Way (Orbis Books,
Carl Teichrib is a Canadian-based
researcher and author whose primary work is on globalization and its
impact on Christianity, the family, and nations.